Table 4

Image findings from previous cases of intrathecal gadolinium neurotoxicity

AuthorImage findings
Arlt et al 17 Gadolinium enhancement in the subarachnoid space 1 hour after injection, still present on day 4. None detected on day 56.
Li et al 18 After 6 days:
FLAIR: enhancement in the CSF cisterns and cerebral sulci.
T1: enhancement in the CSF cisterns, cerebral sulci, cerebral cortex and deep parieto-occipital white matter.
T2: slight enhancement in the corona radiata and centrum semiovale.
DWI: hyperintensity in the right insular cortex, bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia and corona radiata.
ADC: hypointense signals in the cerebellum, brainstem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.
MRA: vasospasm in branches of the middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral arteries.
After 8 months: MRI still showed some enhancement; ADC and MRA were normal.
Kapoor et al 19 FLAIR/T1-weighted images: hyperintensity in subarachnoid space and ventricles.
Park et al 20 CT showed diffuse high density in subarachnoid space 6 hours after injection. CT normal after 4 days.
Nayak et al 16 MR showed enhancement in the basal cisterns and leptomeninges.
Reeves et al 21 Enhancement visualized in intrathecal space during fluoroscopy.
Popescu et al 12 CT and MRI showed enhancement visible in subarachnoid space same day as injection.
  • T1: T1-weighted MRI.

  • T2: T2-weighted MRI.

  • ADC, apparent diffusion coefficient map; CSF, cerebral spinal fluid; DWI, Diffusion weighted imaging; FLAIR, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; MRA, MR angiography.