Table 5

Important issues pertaining to lower extremity surgery and peripheral nerve blocks warranting further investigation with randomized controlled trials

Total knee arthroplasty
  • Comparison between adductor canal and femoral triangle block

  • Comparison between femoral and adductor canal/femoral triangle block in terms of patient mobilization and risk of fall

  • Comparison between single-injection and continuous adductor canal/femoral triangle block

  • Investigation of SPANK block for posterior knee pain

  • Investigation of adjunctive obturator block in the setting of continuous femoral/femoral triangle/adductor canal block

  • Comparison between single-injection and continuous obturator block as an adjunct to femoral/femoral triangle/adductor canal block

Anterior cruciate ligament repair
  • Additional comparison between femoral and adductor canal/femoral triangle block

  • Long term (6 months) quadriceps muscle strength in patients receiving adductor canal/femoral triangle block

Total hip arthroplasty
  • Additional comparison between multimodal analgesia (without or without intrathecal morphine) and lower extremity nerve blocks

  • Comparison between suprainguinal fascia iliaca block and lumbar plexus or femoral nerve block

  • Comparison between single-injection and continuous femoral/fascia iliaca block

Hip fracture surgery
  • Comparison between ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca block and femoral or lumbar plexus block

  • Comparison between single-injection and continuous lumbar plexus/femoral/fascia iliaca block