Table 2

Perioperative clinical outcomes discriminated between the quadratus lumborum block (QLB) and the intrathecal morphine (ITM) groups

OutcomesQLB (n=27)ITM (n=27)P value
Median intraoperative remifentanil consumption (IQR) in μg/kg4.8 (3.5–8.6)8.9 (3.6–11.9)0.12
Intraoperative hypotension, n (%)3 (11.1)3 (11.1)>0.99
Mean intraoperative mean SPI score (SD)53.6 (6.8)50.5 (7.5)0.12
Median cumulative opioid consumption converted to intravenous morphine equivalent (IQR) in mg
 At PACU4.5 (3.8–6.8)4.5 (0–6)0.58*
 At 24 hours35.3 (19.0–46.1)7.5 (4.5–13.3)<0.001*
 At 48 hours59.1 (29.2–73.3)21.8 (15.0–41.7)<0.01*
 At 72 hours65.2 (34.3–95.6)44.7 (19.5–66.0)0.06*
Quality of sleep on the first night (Likert scale†), n (%)0.05
 Dissatisfied or neutral (1–3)14 (51.9)7 (25.9)
 Satisfied (4, 5)13 (48.1)20 (74.1)
Patient satisfaction with pain relief at 24 hours (Likert scale†), n (%)0.03
 Dissatisfied or Neutral (1–3)11 (40.7)3 (11.1)
 Satisfied (4, 5)16 (59.3)24 (88.9)
Mean total QoR-15 postoperative score at 48 hours (SD) (0–150)87.9 (30.1)100 (32.8)0.33*
 Mean physical score (SD) (0–90)45.4 (18.2)54.3 (21.7)0.21*
 Mean mental score (SD) (0–60)42.5 (14.6)45.7 (13.2)0.84*
Median time to first flatus (IQR) in days2.3 (2.0–2.5)2.0 (1.8–2.3)0.19
Median length of hospital stay (IQR) in days10 (9–11)10 (9–10)0.75
  • Wilcoxon rank sum tests or t-tests used for continuous variables, with p value set at 0.05.

  • χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests were used for categorical variables, with p value set at 0.05.

  • *Individual p values result from Bonferroni correction.

  • †Likert scale, where 1=very dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=neutral, 4=satisfied, 5=very satisfied.

  • PACU, postanesthetic care unit; QoR-15, Quality of recovery 15 questionnaire; SPI, Surgical Pleth Index.