Table 1

Subgroup analysis based on primary anesthesia technique

ComplicationsGAGA onlyGA+NANA only
OR (95% CI)NOR (95% CI)NOR (95% CI)NOR (95% CI)N
Mortality6 34 48–55 1.02 (0.88 to 1.18)1 274 5771.02 (0.88 to 1.18)1 274 5770.37 (0.01 to 9.51)251
Cardiac without MI6 48 51–54 56–60 0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)*1 062 7290.20 (0.01 to 4.18)1700.83 (0.80 to 0.86)*1 062 5590.49 (0.12 to 2.01)279
Myocardial infarction50–52 56 58 61–64 0.43 (0.07 to 2.73)5720.33 (0.01 to 8.35)1150.48 (0.05 to 4.68)4570.94 (0.26 to 3.46)950
Respiratory failure
48 53 60 65–78
0.30 (0.16 to 0.55)*12300.31 (0.16 to 0.62)*5570.25 (0.06 to 1.04)6730.71 (0.22 to 2.24)231
Pulmonary6 48 51–53 56 60 62 65–79 0.81 (0.77 to 0.86)*1 064 0060.35 (0.19 to 0.66)*8320.82 (0.77 to 0.87)*1 063 1740.64 (0.25 to 1.67)404
Pneumonia51 52 56 77–79 1.60 (0.54 to 4.73)5320.73 (0.14 to 3.74)2753.17 (0.63 to 16.03)2570.53 (0.09 to 2.95)173
Gastrointestinall6 52 53 56 62 64 78 80 0.83 (0.75 to 0.92)*1 062 7240.50 (0.04 to 5.67)1150.83 (0.75 to 0.92)*1 062 6090.83 (0.36 to 1.92)190
Renal6 48 52 53 64 77 0.90 (0.86 to 0.95)*1 062 7773.11 (0.12 to 77.61)1600.90 (0.86 to 0.95)*1 062 6171.00 (0.13 to 7.60)60
Renal failure48 52 53 64 77 0.77 (0.28 to 2.17)6253.11 (0.12 to 77.61)1600.63 (0.20 to 1.95)4651.00 (0.13 to 7.60)60
Cognitive dysfunction/delirium48 51 62–65 71 81–89 0.32 (0.20 to 0.51)*7140.31 (0.16 to 0.58)*3350.33 (0.16 to 0.69)*3790.57 (0.35 to 0.93)*1382
Delirium48 51 63 65 81–84 0.33 (0.19 to 0.57)*4490.32 (0.16 to 0.66)*2700.35 (0.15 to 0.82)*1790.29 (0.11 to 0.73)*930
Stroke6 51 62 77 0.92 (0.75 to 1.12)1 062 4043.11 (0.12 to 77.61)1600.91 (0.75 to 1.11)1 062 2443.59 (0.14 to 91.94)56
Surgical site infection6 48 49 51–53 55 61 64 66 70 77 78 85 90–101 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84)*1 138 2551.19 (0.71 to 2.00)55610.79 (0.74 to 0.83)*1 132 6941.23 (0.52 to 2.95)739
Any Infection6 51 52 55 56 77–79 91 102 0.76 (0.72 to 0.79)*1 132 1331.03 (0.29 to 3.63)3430.76 (0.72 to 0.79)*1 131 7900.34 (0.07 to 1.75)173
Sepsis48 52 53 66 1.01 (0.14 to 7.23)3571.01 (0.14 to 7.23)3570.94 (0.13 to 6.85)179
Thromboembolism6 51–53 55 59 62 64 66 69 70 77 85 92 93 95 97 98 100 103–107 0.88 (0.83 to 0.94)*1 132 7900.47 (0.15 to 1.43)4620.89 (0.83 to 0.94)*1 132 3281.30 (0.63 to 2.69)827
Perioperative nerve injury49 66 67 77 79 90 92 108–110 1.36 (0.86 to 2.16)10 598†6.03 (1.54 to 23.57)4220.99 (0.59 to 1.67)10 1763.07 (0.31 to 30.44)143
Blood transfusion6 52 53 56 83 111–113 0.91 (0.90 to 0.92)*1 592 6721.11 (0.51 to 2.42)1740.91 (0.90 to 0.92)*1 592 4981.51 (0.71 to 3.18)217
Blood loss50 53 66 67 75 76 80 83 99 113–120 −8.18 (−26.98 to 10.61)1 062 729−3.79 (−23.32 to 15.74)170−63.09 (−132.13 to 5.95)1 062 559−42.30 (−51.90 to −32.71)*279
Critical care admission6 49 53 64 90 1.03 (1.01 to 1.06)*1 062 5761.03 (1.01 to 1.06)*1 062 5762.77 (0.11 to 70.23)76
Readmission34 55 0.66 (0.61 to 0.70)*146 4530.66 (0.61 to 0.70)*146 453
Length of hospital stay (LOS)† 34 49–51 56 60 69 70 72–74 77 79 84 85 89 90 92 99 101 103 106 107 110 113 118 119 121–140 −0.10 (−0.14 to −0.07)*1 138 255−0.48 (−0.55 to −0.41)*5561−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.03)1 132 6940.06 (0.02 to 0.09)*739
  • Pulmonary: pulmonary complications excluding pneumonia.

  • All infections: all infections including pneumonia and sepsis.

  • N (NA/GA): total number of patients with neuraxial/general anesthesia.

  • *P<0.05 .

  • †Continuous outcomes reported as mean difference.

  • CNS, central nervous system complications; GA, general anesthesia; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, neuraxial anesthesia.