Table 1

Studies reporting prevalence of chronic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI)

StudyStudy designSCI cohortTotal numberMale sexMean ageLevel of injuryComplete injuryAll painPain categoryYears since injury
CervicalLumbar–thoracicNociceptiveNPOther pain
Adriaansen et al 19 CSMixed13988444180701211211215.0
Adriaansen et al 20 CSMixed282209481161661951791799622.0
Andresen et al 21 CSTrauma5374135527426319339223418.2
Barrett et al 22 PCMixed88744853356638133116.7
Cragg et al 23 CSMixed149310035063385966293793718.4
Craig et al 24 CSMixed7063472149326517.4
Cruz-Almeida et al 25 CSTrauma123964065573875758.5
Cudeiro-Blanco et al 26 CSMixed25316393157134169
Figoni and Chen27 CSMixed178167645949248512.0
Finnerup et al 28 CSMixed33023043113217158255752559.3
Finnerup et al 29 CSMixed19313347661271076622.0
Finnerup et al 30 PCTrauma81715245342461532403.5
Gironda et al 31 CSMixed66965751066936334518820.3
Grabher et al 32 PCTrauma141346865661.0
Hogholen et al 33 CSMixed*10566534057389919.0
Jain et al 34 CSMixed*938754122965
Jensen et al 35 CSMixed*14711049747311716.6
Jorgensen et al 36 CSMixed12387632210138105817624.0
Kentar et al 37 CSTrauma45132249045129436536520.9
Khazaeipour et al 38 CSTrauma14010129479360703.9
Kogos et al 39 CSTrauma261196281171441561296311.0
Lamid et al 40 CSMixed*6463313328
Michailidou et al 41 CSMixed219136500969612.0
Modirian et al 42 CSTrauma12951276361201175116384013.9
New43 CSMixed1501005062886810.0
Nielsen et al 44 CSMixed*1259456414130.5
Rintala et al 45 CSMixed*3483455511222826517.5
Sauri et al 46 CSMixed8315975027255940038112.7
Siddall et al 47 CSTrauma73604036372859434555.0
Singh et al 48 CSTrauma503638122121
Stormer et al 49 CSMixed90166742378523591
Tibbett et al 50 CSTrauma2017405151119
Turner et al 51 CSMixed*3842834319618814331512.2
Vogel et al 52 CSMixed*2161502912393149
Warms et al 53 v1CSMixed*388154145308
Warms v22158576163
Wen et al 54 PCTrauma2310543205236193.5
Wollaars et al 55 CSMixed27917651113152115215141671558011.8
Total11 351835947 (mean)35897048436173951305331205115614 (mean)
  • *SCI cohort type not specified (traumatic versus non-traumatic).

  • CS, cross-sectional; MSK, musculoskeletal; NP, neuropathic; PC, prospective cohort.