Table 2

Summary of expert panel recommendations incorporating Miller’s hierarchical framework for assessing physicians with the Indication, Acquisition, Interpretation, and Medical decision-making algorithm

Bedside POCUSContentTraining toolsAssessment
IndicationKnowing
Theoretical knowledge
Physics
Knobology
Relevant sonoanatomy
Artifacts
Class-based lectures
Web-based lectures
Required reading
Online resources
Podcast
Videos
Pre/Post-test (to ensure knowledge acquisition)
MCQs
SAQs
AcquisitionKnowing how
Image acquisition
Ergonomics
Probe selection
Image generation
Image optimization
Healthy volunteers
Pathology
Simulator
Standardize live pathology
Animal models
Virtual reality
Validated performance test
Image interpretation
InterpretationShowing how
Clinical integration +practical skills
Systematic approach
Pitfalls
Limitations
Troubleshooting
Direct supervision on patients
Workshops
Small group discussion
Case review
Virtual reality
Portfolio collection
Image interpretation
Medical decision-makingDoing
Decision-making
Algorithms
Clinical integration
Medical implications
Interventions
Direct supervision on patients
Simulators (for select pathology)
Direct observation using validated assessment tools
  • MCQs, multiple-choice questions; POCUS, point-of-care ultrasound; SAQs, short answer questions.