Table 1

Demographics and baseline characteristics

Preintervention (n=45)Postintervention (n=38)P value
Median age (IQR) in years67 (61–70)66 (61–72)0.50*
Male, n (%)44 (99)38 (100)>0.99†
Female, n (%)1 (1)0 (0)>0.99†
Mean height (SD) in cm177 (8)178 (14)0.97‡
Mean weight (SD) in kg92 (17)88 (16)0.34‡
Mean body mass index (SD) in kg/m²29 (5)28 (5)0.44‡
Median ASA physical status (IQR)3 (2–3)3 (2–3)0.30*
Psychiatric comorbidity, n (%)24 (53)23 (60)0.51§
Substance abuse disorder, n (%)21 (47)15 (39)0.51§
Prescribed preoperative opioids, n (%)16 (36)9 (24)0.24§
Instrumented fusion cases, n (%)9 (20)10 (26)0.50§
  • *Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • ‡Student’s t-test.

  • §χ2 test.

  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists.