Table 1

Demographic and injury characteristics

No early regional* anesthesia (n=232)Early regional* anesthesia (n=126)P value
(n=232)
Age, mean (SD), y†28.0 (7.5)28.2 (6.3)0.751
Sex0.555
 Female3 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Male229 (98.7)126 (100.0)
Race0.616
 White117 (76.3)101 (80.2)
 Black14 (6.0)5 (4.0)
 Other41 (17.7)20 (15.9)
Ethnicity0.540
 Non-Hispanic201 (86.6)112 (88.9)
 Hispanic31 (13.4)14 (11.1)
Education0.032
 High school/GED100 (43.1)47 (37.3)
 Some college99 (42.7)47 (37.3)
 College graduate33 (14.2)32 (25.4)
Marital status0.098
 Single/never married115 (49.6)51 (40.5)
 Married/partnered102 (44.0)70 (55.6)
 Separated/divorced15 (6.5)5 (4.0)
Military service0.015
 Army165 (71.1)105 (83.3)
 Marine55 (23.7)14 (11.1)
 Other12 (5.2)7 (5.6)
Number of deployments, mean (SD)†1.9 (1.2)2.1 (1.3)0.083
Length of last deployment, mean (SD), m†4.5 (2.7)4.4 (2.9)0.757
Injury Severity Score, mean (SD)†19.0 (11.8)17.3 (8.5)0.170
Mechanism of injury
 Explosion168 (72.4)104 (82.5)0.032
 Gunshot40 (17.2)16 (12.7)0.258
 Motor vehicle13 (5.6)4 (3.2)0.302
 Other17 (7.3)4 (3.2)0.110
Injury type
 Amputation71 (31.0)60 (47.6)0.002
 Arm injuries117 (51.1)78 (61.9)0.046
 Leg injuries191 (83.4)107 (84.9)0.723
 Mangled limb225 (98.3)120 (95.2)0.099
 More than one extremity injury63 (27.5)36 (28.6)0.812
 Head injury117 (50.9)78 (61.9)0.046
PTSD Check List, mean (SD)†27.7 (11.9)27.5 (12.5)0.889
Length of stay at recruitment site, mean (SD), d34.3 (34.1)41.1 (30.5)0.063
Current smoker41 (17.7)13 (10.3)0.063
Previous head trauma132 (57.1)63 (50.0)0.195
  • *Data are presented as number (percentage) of participants unless otherwise indicated.

  • †Refers to t-test, otherwise results refer to χ2 analyses.

  • d, days; GED, general education development; m, months;PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; y, years.