Table 2

Patient-reported pain outcomes estimated from linear mixed effects model from 1–6 to 1–24 months after combat injury

1–6 months1–24 months
β95% CIP valueβ95% CIP value
Brief Pain Inventory*
Average pain
 Intercept3.112.63 to 3.60<0.0012.762.38 to 3.13<0.001
 Month since initial injury−0.18−0.23 to −0.12<0.001−0.03−0.04 to −0.02<0.001
 Regional anesthesia−0.57−1.02 to −0.130.012−0.36−0.72 to −0.010.046
Pain relief
 Intercept66.1259.00 to 73.24<0.00166.2460.60 to 71.89<0.001
 Month since initial injury0.48−0.61 to 1.560.389−0.50−0.78 to −0.210.001
 Regional anesthesia6.360.40 to 12.310.0373.82−1.23 to 8.880.137
Worst pain
 Intercept5.705.02 to 6.37<0.0015.144.61 to 5.67<0.001
 Month since initial injury−0.28−0.36 to −0.21<0.001−0.05−0.06 to −0.03<0.001
 Regional anesthesia−0.32−0.94 to 0.310.324−0.27−0.78 to 0.240.296
Pain interference
 Intercept2.391.82 to 2.97<0.0012.301.87 to 2.73<0.001
 Month since initial injury−0.16−0.22 to −0.09<0.001−0.04−0.05 to −0.02<0.001
 Regional anesthesia−0.24−0.77 to 0.290.371−0.15−0.56 to 0.260.479
  • All models included a covariate for ISS and length of hospitalization. See online supplementary table 2 for more detail.

  • *Brief Pain Inventory outcomes worst, average, and pain interference range from 0, no pain, to 10, pain as bad as you can imagine. The Brief Pain Inventory pain relief is on a scale from 0%, no pain relief, to 100%, complete pain relief.

  • ISS, Injury Severity Scores.