In Part I of this series, we provide guidance for preparing a systematic review protocol. In this article, we highlight important steps and supplement with exemplars on conducting and reporting the results of a systematic review. We suggest how authors can manage protocol violations, multiplicity of outcomes and analyses, and heterogeneity. The quality (certainty) of the evidence and strength of recommendations should follow the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. It is our goal that Part II of this series provides valid guidance to authors and peer reviewers who conduct systematic reviews to adhere to important constructs of transparency, structure, reproducibility, and accountability. This will likely result in more rigorous systematic reviews being submitted for publication to the journals like Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine and Anesthesia & Analgesia.
- Anesthesia, Local
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Contributors RSD’S conceived and led the development of this project, and drafted the original and subsequent versions of the manuscript including its format and intellectual content, before preparing it for submission. MJB conceived and led the development of this project and drafted the original and subsequent versions of the manuscript including its format and intellectual content, before preparing it for submission. AS contributed important intellectual content to the manuscript and approved the final version. EJM contributed important intellectual content to the manuscript, developed its format and structure, edited subsequent sections, and approved the final version. GAK contributed important intellectual content to the manuscript, drafted subsequent versions of the manuscript, and approved the final version. This manuscript was handled by: Thomas R. Vetter, MD, MPH, MFA.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests RSD’S is an Associate Editor for Anesthesia & Analgesia, and an Associate Editor for Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine. MJB is a Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Medicine Executive Section Editor of Anesthesia & Analgesia. AS received a honorarium for his contribution to this manuscript. EJM is Statistical Editor for Anesthesia & Analgesia. GAK is the Statistical Advisor for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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