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Contributors AAD helped with study conceptualization and design, data manipulation and analysis, drafting and revision of the manuscript. CYK helped with data manipulation and critical revision of the manuscript. ERM helped with critical revision of the manuscript. VK helped with study design and critical revision of the manuscript. TO helped with study design and critical revision of the manuscript. KR helped with study design and critical revision of the manuscript. WEB helped with critical revision of the manuscript. KB helped with critical revision of the manuscript. ECS helped with study conceptualization and design and critical revision of the manuscript.
Funding This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (grant number T32 GM 089626, to AAD), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grant number K23DA040923, to KB), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant number R01HS027795, to KB), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grant number K08DA042314, to ECS). The PHS Data Core is supported by an NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Science Clinical and Translational Science Award (UL1TR003142) and from internal Stanford funding.
Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH, VA or the US Government. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Competing interests ECS is on the advisory board of Lucid Lane and reports receiving consulting fees unrelated to this work from Analysis Group. ERM serves on the editorial board for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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