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Not a single spinal cord injury due to direct needle trauma in over 1.3 million epidural steroid injections

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  • Contributors CJG and JR conceived of the presented idea. CJG and JR developed the theory and supervised the findings of this work. Both authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests CJG has sponsored research from Sollis Medical and serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of Persica Pharmaceuticals.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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    Efe Eworuke Judith Racoosin David J Graham