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Contributors RLH and MFM participated in study design, simulation, and manuscript preparation. HAB and CES participated in simulation and manuscript preparation. GW participated in study design, statistical analysis, and manuscript preparation. JMN participated in study design, simulation, statistical analysis, and manuscript preparation.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests This study is independent of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA). MFM, JMN, and GW served on the 2010 and 2017 ASRA LAST practice advisory panels. GW is an officer and shareholder of ResQ Pharma.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The institutional review board of Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason Medical Center approved this study, which did not meet criteria (https://prsinfo.clinicaltrials.gov/ACT_Checklist.pdf) for ClinicalTrials.gov registration.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.