In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that rapid injection of solution through a large bore needle is associated with a higher flow rate than rapid injection through a small bore needle or catheter. In the epidural space, higher flow rates appear to lead to a wider spread of the injectate with exposure of the drug to more absorptive vessels. Flow rates can be reduced by either injecting through a small bore needle or catheter or, when injecting through a large bore needle, by limiting the speed of injection.
- Epidural analgesia
- Flow rate
- Injection pressure
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