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Cardiovascular Effects of Total Spinal Anesthesia Following Intrathecal Administration of Bupivacaine with and Without Epinephrine in the Dog
  1. Hal S. Feldman, BSc,
  2. Richard G. Arthur, PhD and
  3. Benjamin G. Covino, PhD, MD
  1. From the Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts


Total spinal anesthesia was induced in dogs by the intrathecal injection of 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with and without epinephrine. A decrease of approximately 40% to 50% in mean arterial blood pressure occurred in both groups of animals with spontaneous return toward control blood pressure values within 3 hours. Epinephrine delayed but did not significantly alter the profound hypotension following induction of total spinal blockade. A decrease of approximately 30% in mean heart rate occurred in both groups of dogs. Epinephrine did not exert any influence on the rate or degree of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the subarachnoid space. No sensory or motor deficits were observed in any of the animals following recovery from total spinal anesthesia induced with bupivacaine with and without epinephrine.

  • Total spinal
  • Local anesthesia
  • Subarachnoid injection
  • Bupivacaine
  • Experimental spinal anesthesia
  • Epinephrine

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  • Address reprint requests to Dr. Covino: Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.