Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Photoplethysmography as an Indicator of Onset of Epidural Block
  1. Kamil Mustafa, MD, FFARCS,
  2. Ralph A. Milliken, MD, MBA,
  3. Dante V. Bizzarri, MD and
  4. Pravin Shah, MD
  1. From the Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, New York Medical College, Bronx, New York


The authors describe a method of monitoring photoplethysmographic changes in the lower extremities after an epidural injection. On the basis of their experience with a small series of cases, it is believed that this method can prove useful in the clinical practice of anesthesia in determining the onset of block with an accurate measure of objectivity. The method is rapid, highly sensitive, totally noninvasive, and reliable. The equipment used for this purpose is readily available on a commercial basis.

  • Photoplethysmography
  • Indicator
  • Epidural block

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • This work was performed at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Bronx, New York.

    Address reprint requests to Dr. Mustafa: Department of Anesthesiology, 234 East 149th Street, Bronx, NY 10451.