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Three Edinburgh Men
  1. J. A. W. Wildsmith, MD, FFARCS
  1. From the Department of Anaesthetics, The Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland


Three men, working in Edinburgh during the middle of the 19th century, performed studies of interest in the story of the development of regional anesthesia prior to Koller. Sensory blockade with cocaine was demonstrated in an animal, the hypodermic syringe and needle were developed, and the term “local anesthesia” was devised as early as 1848.

  • Regional anesthesia
  • history
  • Blockade
  • sensory
  • Cocaine
  • History
  • Hypodermic needle
  • syringe

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  • From a presentation to the First General Meeting of the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia, Edinburgh, September 16‐18, 1982. Address reprint requests to Dr. Wildsmith: Department of Anaesthetics, The Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh EH3 9YW, United Kingdom.