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- drug-related side effects and adverse reactions
- acute pain
- postoperative complications
The past two decades have seen an exponential increase in the use of cannabis and cannabinoids in the USA, as a result of both regulatory changes and public interest in possible therapeutic benefits. Patients presenting for surgery are using cannabis and cannabinoids with increasing frequency and guidelines on safe perioperative management are needed. The Cannabis Working Group in the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine drafted nine key questions that addressed this topic. A 12-member expert panel consisting of anesthesiologists, pain physicians, and a patient advocate used a modified Delphi method to create responses. Selected recommendations from these guidelines1 are shown in this infographic.
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Twitter @ShaliniShahMD, @ESchwenkMD, @NarouzeMD
Correction notice This article has been corrected since it published Online First. The title has been updated.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.