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Postoperative opioid consumption after spine surgery: 24 hours or midnight to midnight? An infographic
  1. Rajnish K Gupta1 and
  2. Eric S Schwenk2
  1. 1 Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  2. 2 Anesthesiology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Eric S Schwenk, Anesthesiology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA; Eric.Schwenk{at}

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While postoperative opioid consumption is commonly reported in pain studies, there is no standard definition of the intervals over which it is reported. In the article by Lam et al,1 the authors found that 43.8% of reported opioid consumption would be missed if postoperative day 1 begins at midnight after surgery. The authors proposed that opioid consumption be measured in 24-hour intervals beginning at anesthesia stop time to allow for consistent comparisons across studies.

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The authors would like to acknowledge Jim Snively, artist, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for creation of this infographic.



  • Twitter @dr_rajgupta, @ESchwenkMD

  • Contributors Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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