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Contributors MWS: this author helped with literature search, manuscript preparation, and review of manuscript. BMI: this author helped with literature search, manuscript preparation and review of manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests MWS and BMI: The University of California has received funding and product for other research projects from Myoscience (Fremont, CA) and Epimed (Farmers Branch, TX); infusion pump manufacturer Infutronics (Natick, MA); and a manufacturer of a peripheral nerve stimulation device, SPR Therapeutics (Cleveland, OH). BMI: In addition to the above, BMI’s institution has received funding from a manufacturer of a long-acting bupivacaine formulation, Heron Pharmaceuticals.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.