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Twitter @kohanlynn, @ESchwenkMD
Contributors AM: data collection, study design, data analysis and manuscript preparation. LK: data collection, study design and manuscript preparation. JO: data collection and manuscript preparation. MW: data collection and manuscript preparation. JG: data collection and manuscript preparation. MT: data analysis and manuscript preparation. EV: manuscript preparation. ES: data collection, study design, data analysis and manuscript preparation.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests ES received consulting fees from Avenue Therapeutics in 2017. His institution received funding from Attune Medical in 2019. LK received honoraria, speaking fees and consulting fees from Avanos. EV received consulting fees from AcelRx, Avenue, Cara, Concentric, Esteve, Heron, Innacoll, Mallinckrodt, Merck, Neumentum, Pacira, Pfizer, Recro, Salix, Sinogi and Trevena.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The institutional review boards of Thomas Jefferson University and the University of Virginia approved this study.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.