Abstract In 2014, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine in collaboration with the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy convened a group of experts to compare pathways for anesthetic and analgesic management for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty in North America and Europe and to develop a practice pathway. This review is intended to be an analysis of the current literature to assist individuals and institutions in designing a pathway for total knee arthroplasty that is based on existing evidence and expert recommendation and may be customized according to individual settings.
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B.M.I.'s institution has received funding for his research from several infusion pump manufacturers, including Baxter Healthcare, Smiths Medical, Infutronix, and Summit Medical; a perineural catheter manufacturer, Teleflex Medical; a manufacturer of a peripheral nerve stimulator, SPR Therapeutics; a manufacturer of a cryoneurolysis device, Myoscience; and manufacturers of long-acting liposome bupivacaine formulations, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, and Heron Therapeutics. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.
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