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Longitudinal Assessment of Pain Outcomes in the Clinical Setting: Development of the “APOLO” Electronic Data Capture System
  1. Afton L. Hassett, PsyD,
  2. Ronald Wasserman, MD,
  3. Jenna Goesling, PhD,
  4. Kevin Rakovitis, BA,
  5. Baorong Shi, MA and
  6. Chad M. Brummett, MD
  1. From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
  1. Address correspondence to: Afton L. Hassett, PsyD, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Chronic Pain & Fatigue Research Center, Domino’s Farms, Lobby M, PO Box 385, 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (e-mail: afton{at}


Abstract Data to fully evaluate the effectiveness of many commonly used interventions in the clinical pain management setting are inadequate. Clinical data collected for patient management often are not based on validated instruments, and this impedes the ability to conduct longitudinal research. To address these needs, modified patient intake and return visit forms were established and the Assessment of Pain Outcomes Longitudinal Electronic Data Capture system was developed. Data collection has been underway since November 22, 2010. As of December 7, 2011, 951 New Patient and 688 Return Visit forms had been entered. The forms have been well received, with less than 6.5% failing to complete at least 90% of the data requested. Accuracy of data entry is excellent, with an error rate of 1 in 11,250 potential data points. Data output converts easily to standard statistical programs. The creation of a pain outcomes database using validated measures and clinically relevant data is feasible.

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  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  • This research was funded by the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.