Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Needle to Nerve Proximity: What Do the Animal Studies Tell Us?
  1. Alan James Robert Macfarlane, MBChB, MRCP, FRCA*,
  2. Anuj Bhatia, MBBS, MD, FRCA and
  3. Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC
  1. From the *Departments of Anaesthesia, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland, United Kingdom; and
  2. Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  1. Address correspondence to: Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8 (e-mail: richard.brull{at}


Recent animal studies have provided insight and understanding, as well as promising clinical tools, to help identify needle-to-nerve contact and potentially hazardous intraneural injection. This narrative review describes and summarizes the contemporary animal studies primarily relating to indicators of needle-to-nerve contact and intraneural injection. Resultant nerve injury, whenever sought, is discussed.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • The authors did not receive funding for this study.

  • The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.