Recent animal studies have provided insight and understanding, as well as promising clinical tools, to help identify needle-to-nerve contact and potentially hazardous intraneural injection. This narrative review describes and summarizes the contemporary animal studies primarily relating to indicators of needle-to-nerve contact and intraneural injection. Resultant nerve injury, whenever sought, is discussed.
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The authors did not receive funding for this study.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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