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Practical Knobology for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia
  1. Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC*,
  2. Alan J.R. Macfarlane, MBChB, MRCP, FRCA and
  3. Cyrus C.H. Tse, BSc*
  1. From the *Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and
  2. Department of Anaesthesia, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
  1. Address correspondence to: Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8 (e-mail: richard.brull{at}


This article provides an instructive review of the essential functions universal to modern ultrasound machines in use for regional anesthesia practice. An understanding of machine knobology is integral to performing safe and successful ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

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