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Clinical Sonopathology for the Regional Anesthesiologist: Part 1: Vascular and Neural
  1. Brian D. Sites, MD*,
  2. Alan J.R. Macfarlane, MBChB, MRCP, FRCA,
  3. Vincent R. Sites, MD,
  4. Ali M. Naraghi, MD, FRCR§,
  5. Vincent W.S. Chan, MD, FRCPC,
  6. John G. Antonakakis, MD,
  7. Mandeep Singh, MBBS, MD and
  8. Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC
  1. From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH;
  2. Department of Anaesthesia, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland, UK;
  3. Department of Radiology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA;
  4. §Joint Department of Medical Imaging of University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
  5. Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management,Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and
  6. Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
  1. Address correspondence to: Richard Brull, MD, FRCPC, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8 (e-mail: richard.brull{at}


The use of ultrasound to facilitate regional anesthesia is an evolving area of clinical, education, and research interests. As our community's experience grows, it has become evident that anesthesiologists performing "routine" ultrasound-guided blocks may very well be confronted with atypical or even pathologic anatomy. As an educational resource for anesthesiologists, the following articles present examples of common sonopathology that may be encountered during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. This present article describes sonopathology related to blood vessels and nerves.

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  • The authors did not receive funding for this study and have no conflict of interest to declare.