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Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures in Pain Medicine: A Review of Anatomy, Sonoanatomy, and Procedures: Part I: Nonaxial Structures
  1. Philip W.H. Peng, MBBS, FRCPC* and
  2. Samer Narouze, MD, MS
  1. From the *Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and
  2. Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
  1. Address correspondence to: Philip W. H. Peng, MBBS, FRCPC, McL 2-405, Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8 (e-mail: Philip.peng{at}


Application of ultrasound in pain medicine is a rapidly growing medical field in interventional pain management. Ultrasound provides direct visualization of various soft tissues and real-time needle advancement and avoids exposing both the health care provider and the patient to the risks of radiation. The machine itself is more affordable than a fluoroscope, computed tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging machine. In the present review, we discuss the challenges and limitations of ultrasound-guided procedures for pain management, anatomy, and sonoanatomy of selected pain management procedures and the literature on those selected procedures.

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  • Source of funding: Institutional.