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Central Nervous System and Cardiac Effects From Long-Acting Amide Local Anesthetic Toxicity in the Intact Animal Model
  1. Leanne Groban, M.D.
  1. From the Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
  1. Reprint requests: Leanne Groban, M.D., Department of Anesthesiology, thesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1009. E-mail: lgroban{at}


With the development of the newer long-acting amide local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, numerous animal studies of LA systemic toxicity have emerged. Because of the complex nature of the human response to LA intoxication, the task of designing and interpreting these animal studies of LA toxicity can be difficult. Accordingly, this report will review the selection of an animal model for the study of LA toxicity; examine the pertinent in vivo animal studies that compare the central nervous system toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, and the ease of resuscitation of the single enantiomer local anesthetics to racemic bupivacaine; and extrapolate these findings to the clinical setting. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2003;28:3-11.

  • Animal model
  • Local anesthetics
  • Bupivacaine
  • Levobupivacaine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Central nervous system
  • Convulsions
  • Heart
  • Electrophysiology
  • Contractility
  • Resuscitation

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  • Presented at the American Society of Regional Anesthesia Consensus Conference on Local Anesthetic Toxicity, Miami Beach, FL, November 18, 2001.