An editorial in 1979 by George Albright about sudden cardiac arrest after regional anesthesia spawned an era of intense research focusing on what local anesthetics do to the heart and how they do it. The ultimate goal of the research was to bring to the clinician long-acting local anesthetics that are less cardiotoxic than ones available before 1979, bupivacaine and etidocaine, in particular. In this article, I will review results of studies of local anesthetic cardiotoxicity using the intact mammalian heart in vitro published after the Albright editorial through 2001.
- Local anesthetic
- In vitro
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
Presented in part at the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Conference on Local Anesthetic Toxicity, November 17-18, 2001, Miami Beach, Florida.