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Use of Preincisional Ketorolac in Hernia Patients: Intravenous versus Surgical Site
  1. Neil Roy Connelly, M.D.*,
  2. Scott S. Reuben, M.D.*,
  3. Michael Albert, M.D. and
  4. David Page, M.D
  1. *Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  2. Department of Surgery, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
  1. Reprint requests: Neil Roy Connelly, M.D., Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, MA 01199.


Background and Objectives This study was designed to determine whether administration of ketorolac directly in the surgical site results in enhanced analgesia.

Methods A randomized double-blind study was undertaken at a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Thirty outpatients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair by one of two surgeons under local anesthesia with sedation were evaluated. Patients were invited to participate in this investigation at the time of the preoperative surgical visit. Patients who had a contraindication to the use of ketorolac or who refused repair under local anesthesia with sedation were excluded. Patients received ketorolac 60 mg either via the parenteral route or directly in the surgical site (mixed with the local anesthetic). The outcome measures included visual analog pain scores, measured at two different times in the hospital, pain scores at rest and with movement 24 hours after surgery, time to first analgesic, and total analgesic requirement.

Results The study revealed lower 24 hour movement-associated pain scores (P < .02), increased time to first analgesic (P < .03), and decreased oral analgesic consumption (P < .0002) in the surgical site group.

Conclusions Ketorolac provides enhanced patient comfort when it is administered in the surgical site in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. It is recommended that clinicians add ketorolac to the local anesthetic solution in such patients.

  • ketorolac
  • inguinal hernia repair
  • surgical site analgesia
  • intravenous analgesia
  • postoperative pain

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  • Presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the International Anesthesia Research Society, Washington, D.C., 1996.