Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the analgesic effectiveness of ketorolac administered with lidocaine via intravenous regional asesthesia (IVRA) or via wound infiltration following ambulatory hand surgery.
Methods The patient population in this double-blind study consisted of 60 patients scheduled for elective ambulatory hand surgery, who were divided into three groups of 20 each. All patients received IVRA with 40 mL 0.5% lidocaine and 5 mL 1% lidocaine infiltrated into the surgical site. Group 1, the control group, received no additional medications; group 2 had 60 mg ketorolac added to the lidocaine used for IVRA; and group 3 had 60 mg ketorolac added to the lidocaine used for wound infiltration. Postoperative pain was assessed by a 10-cm visual analog scale, VAS) 1 hour and 2 hours after tourniquet deflation. In the postanesthesia care unit analgesia was provided with fentanyl until the VAS score reached 3 or lower. Patients were instructed to take one Tylenol No. 3 (acetaminophen with codeine) tablet every 4 hours as needed at home. They were contacted the next day, and the time to first additional narcotics and the total number of tablets taken were recoded.
Results No differences in demographic variables or in operative, tourniquet, or discharge times were noted among the groups. The VAS scores were significantly lower in the two groups who received ketorolac than in the control group (P < .05); the mean time from tourniquet release to first medication was 109 ± 73 minutes for group 1, 467 ± 431 for group 2, and 393 ± 312 for group 3 (P < .05); and the number of tablets taken was 4.1 ± 1.3 for group 1, 1.8 ± 1.2 for group 2, and 2.0 ± 1.3 for group 3 (P <.05).
Conclusion Ketorolac provides similar postoperative analgesia after ambulatory hand surgery when administered with lidocaine either by IVRA or by wound infiltration.
- intravenous regional anesthesia
- ambulatory surgery
- regional anesthetic technique
- postoperative pain
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Presented in part at the International Anesthesia Research Society 70th Clinical and Scientific Congress, Washington, D.C., March 12, 1996.